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• Sample chapter-1 question:

What "law" describes the steady downward trend in transistor size? State what the law says, as precisely as you can.

Moore's Law; feature size halves and performance doubles every 18 to 24 months.

• Sample chapter-2 question:

Briefly describe one characteristic that distibuishes RISC designs from CISC designs.

• RISC instructions only accept registers as operands, while CISC instructions can operate directly on memory locations.
• CISC designs include many specialized instructions, while RISC designs restrict themsleves to basic general-purpose instructions.
• RISC instruction formats are consistent and regular, but CISC instruction formats can vary substantially..

• Sample chapter-3 question:

How many clock cycles would an optimized multiplier require, to multipy two 16-bit numbers?

One clock cycle per bit, so 16 cycles.

• Sample assembly question:

Here is a LEGv8 assembly instruction: `ldur x11, [x25, #7]`

Show the binary assembled machine instruction. Identify which register field is which. Also write the instruction in hexadecimal.

Using the 1st page of the "Green Card"
```    ___opcode__.__DTaddr_.__.__Rn_.__Rt_
7   C   2       7         25     B
vvv||||vvvv

11111000010 000000111 00 11001 01011 = 0x8b07023b
/\
upper 16 bits    lower 16 bits
```

• Sample disassembly question:

Here is a LEGv8 machine instruction: `0x8b07023b`

Write the instruction in binary, divided into fields, and label which field is which. Show the corresponding Assembly-language instruction.

Using the 2nd page of the "Green Card"
```    1000 1011 0000 0111  0000 0010 0011 1011
/  \
upper 16 bits     lower 16 bits

10001011000 00111 000000 10001 11011        add x27, x17, x7
___opcode__.__Rm_.______.__Rn_.__Rd_

7            17   27
```